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♦ ♦ ♦ 

This booklet, o presentation of the Highway Planning 
Survey, gives a short history of transportation; shows 
the development of highways in Florida; outlines the 
objectives of the Survey; and for the benefit of motor- 
ists, briefly describes the State's scenic values. We 
invite your perusal so that you may become better 
acquainted with the highway problems of today. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

Compiled by 



3 .8- < S\ | 




ARTHUR B. HALE, Chairman— Tampa 

E. A. McCOLSKEY, Lake City BROOKS W. BATEMAN, Pahokee 


♦ ♦ ♦ 

W. M. MILES, Secretary 
ALEX B. STEUART, Auditor FRED H. KENT, Attorney 

J. H. DOWLING, State Highway Engineer 
L. K. CANNON, Assistant State Highway Engineer 

♦ + ♦ 


♦ ♦ 


Historical Guide and Road Map 4 

Flsrida Fa c ts 5 

First Great Road Builders 6-7 

History of Florida in Terms of Transportation 8-15 

Modern Transportation and the State Road Department 16-23 

Federal Aid '. 24-26 

Planning, the Keynote of Progress 27 

The Statewide Highway Planning Survey 28-37 

Highway Headlights 38-39 

The East Coast of Florida 40-47 

Central Florida 48-53 

The West Coast of Florida 54-59 

North and West Florida 60-63 

How the Motorist can Cooperate with the Survey 64 



Governor Cone has pledged his administration to a program of 
rigid economy in State government. As a contributing factor, the 
Statewide Highway Planning Survey is providing factual informa- 
tion upon which future expenditures of public funds for road im- 
provements and construction can be placed on a sound and eco- 
nomical basis. 

Florida will materially benefit from this rational Highway Planning 
Survey, which is nationwide in scope and financed largely with 
Federal funds. 




■ ^fe^S F" 







Lake Wales 




St. Augustine 









Vero Beach 

Winter Haven 




FLORIDA has a total area of 58,666 square miles, 54,861 of which are 
iand, and the remaining 3,805 square miles consist of water. The 
peninsula has 1,400 miles of shoreline. 

FLORIDA'S average mean temperature is 72, and the average rainfall 
is 51 .9 inches. 

IN 1935 Florida's population was 1,602,268. 

RECORDS disclose that 284,642,538 gallons of gasoline were consumed 

in this State in 1936. 

IN 1936, 408,339 motor vehicles were registered. 

FLORIDA leads the nation in the production of grapefruit, celery, Fuller's 
earth, and phosphate (84% of U. S. production), and in winter-grown 
crops we rank first in producing tomatoes, snap beans, eggplant, cucum- 
bers, peppers, and Irish potatoes. Our waters yield about 137,000,000 
pounds of fish yearly. Florida grows a greater variety of food products 
throughout the year than any other State and there are still ten million 
acres of rich farm land yet to be developed in the "Sunshine State!" 

SHIPPING to and from every quarter of the Globe passes through 
Florida's busy ports. 

MORE than 90 per cent of the population of the United States can reach 
Florida within 48 hours. 

THE northernmost tip of Florida is farther south than the southernmost 
limit of California. 

AN automobile traveling from Pensacola to Key West via Jacksonville 
must drive 890 miles, which is 100 miles farther than the latter city is 
from Washington, D. C. 

MIAMI'S magnificent "Dinner Key Base," said to be the world's largest 
seaplane base, brings 170 cities and 32 countries of Pan-America within 
a few days' reach of the United States. 

HONORABLE Fred P. Cone, Governor of Florida, has had 34 predecessors, 
seven of whom served as territorial chief executives, and the first of 
these was Andrew Jackson, who later became the seventh President of 
the United States. 

WHEN Florida was ushered in as a territory in 1821 there were only two 
counties, Escambia and St. Johns — today we have sixty-seven. 

Page Five 




' ; 

fiest vo£t€t builvLevs* 

IT was her roads that made Rome mistress of the world. Built 
as military avenues they covered the Empire in spider-like 
fashion. Over them, her legions traveled swiftly to the far- 
flung frontiers to execute the will of Rome. As new peoples fell 
before the might of Roman arms, highways linked these territories 
with the Imperial City. Thus, by the close of the second century 
A. D. # Rome was the junction of 29 important roads. 

Most celebrated of Roman roads is the Appian Way, which was 
begun in 313 B. C. by Appius Claudius Caecus. Extending south- 
ward from the capital city to Capua, the Appian Way, when the 
Empire was in power, crossed the Apennines, continued to Tarentum 
and from there reached over to the fortified port of Brundisium. 

Like most Roman roads, the Appian Way is a marvel of durable 
construction. Its foundation consists of repeated layers of graded 
stone packed and rammed to a depth of several feet to create an 
enduring grade level, while polished stone, fitted piece by piece 
with minute care, forms the famous highway's surface. Although 


2,250 years have passed since the first stone was laid, sections of 
the Appian Way are still being used today — a lasting tribute tp 
the excellence of Roman engineering! 

mi 01 


Z/io&cls U/aca JVtctvu 

All Roman roads were marked and at intervals a complete 
register of the whole system was published listing the stations on 
the roads and distances between them. One of these registers, 
issued about 200 A.D., discloses that the Empire had 372 im- 
portant paved highways' comprising a total of 48,000 miles. 

In the center of this great web-work of highways was Rome, 
seat of power, luxury, and culture. To her doors came the wealth 
of the world, transported over her multitudinous miles of roads. 
Where her legions marched, trade flourished; military thorough- 
fares became the busy arteries of commerce, the routes of an 
efficient postal service, and the way of the traveler. Thus, even 
greater than the might of Roman legions were the roads which 
firmly bound the Empire together. And until the day that the 
troops were recalled to protect the gates of the Imperial City, 
the fine highways of the Empire were never permitted to suffer 

I *■ — - «v. «-^ -I VJ 



^punish strips sail up the const* 

ELEVEN centuries after the fall of the Roman Empire, Spain 
focused her attention on America. These passing centuries 
had witnessed the repeated sacking of Rome. They like- 
wise had seen the fine highways of the Empire gradually disin- 
tegrate, and become crumbling reminders of the splendor that was 
Rome's. For centuries following the downfall of the Empire 
stagnancy and strife were rampant in Europe, when with the 
Renaissance in Italy, came the revival of trade and learning — a 
movement which spread rapidly to Portugal, then Spain. 

During the year 1 51 3 three lumbering caravels slowly sailed up 
the coast of Florida. In command of the small fleet was Juan 
Ponce de Leon, who had just conquered Porto Rico for Spain and 
was now in search of the isle of Bimini, where the Indians had 
told him there was a spring that would restore his youth. Be- 
lieving that Florida was the island he was searching for, the ex- 
plorer looked for a sheltered cove where he might land and claim 
the territory for Spain. 

The discovery of the peninsula by Ponce de Leon was the be- 
ginning of the long period of Spanish explorations and, although 

Vyfrg^^^W~ ~^"-n-| .. V 


many expeditions followed, none of them met with success until 
Menendez de Aviles landed at St. Augustine in 1565. ( 

Menendez realized that the impenetrable wilderness which ex- 
isted then must be opened for travel, if Spain was to successfully 
conquer the unexplored regions. However, the few trails the Indians 
used were suitable for foot travel only. Consequently, the Spanish 
were unable to ride their horses, and since they wore armored suits, 
passage afoot was arduous. 

Almost since its discovery, Florida, to the Spaniard, was the land 
around which the treasure fleets sailed; the wish of Spain was 
to plant fortifications only to protect its treasure. Menendez 
knew this and seized the idea of finding a way across the peninsula 
by water, thereby eliminating the voyage through the treacherous 
Florida straits. While not successful in this attempt, Menendez did 
build the first road in Florida. This short stretch joined old Fort 
San Marco at St. Augustine to Fort Caroline on the St. Johns 
River to the north, which the Spanish had captured from the 
French in 1565. 

Following the founding of St. Augustine, Spain increased her 
hold in the New World by establishing the colonies of Pensacola 




i mr 

and Fernandina. In an effort to Christianize the Indians, mission 
towns, too, were planted at strategic points all over Florida. Since 
these missions needed supplies and most of them lay within the 
interior, it became evident that roads must be built connecting 
them with St. Augustine, the seat of the government. 

*jrlmavicci s fivst -ttaut&corvttn&ivtal ItigltWui/ - 

BY the early part of the seventeenth century forty missions, 
situated between St. Augustine and Pensacola, had been 
connected with a roughly improvised road. This highway, 
later known as the Spanish Trail, was the first transcontinental 
route in America, for it eventually continued across the southern 
portion of the United States, from St. Augustine to San Diego, 

The Spanish Trail began at St. Augustine and continued west 
to Picolata, where it crossed the St. Johns River. Here the trail 
traveled southwest around the southern shores of Santa Fe Lake 
and crossed the Natural Bridge section just outside the present 
town of High Springs. From Natural Bridge it continued to Fort 
White and Monticello. At Monticeilo the ancient trail traversed 
the same course as the present US 90 does to Tallahassee. At 
Tallahassee stood Fort San Luis, and from there the Spanish Trail 
ran up into south Georgia connecting with a road leading to San 
Diego, California. After the destruction of Fort San Luis by Gov- 
ernor Moore in 1704, Fort San Marco on the Gulf was made the 
western terminus of the trail. 



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During Spanish times the trail was kept in good repair. Pack 
trains loaded with supplies carried products to the missions. But 
with the advent of the English, Florida was divided into East and 
West Florida. With separate governors there was less need for 
communication and the Spanish Trail was left to grow up in weeds 
and underbrush. It was not until American times that the road 
was used again, the repaired highway being known as the Bellamy 
road, for the pioneer planter who undertook to clear it. 

tin ictcl to t fee development of \9mst l/x« 

WHEN Florida fell into the hands of the English in 1762, 
transportation became the leading factor of British suc- 
cess in developing the territory. It was during this period 
that the Kings Highway, the "great road," between New Smyrna, 
Florida, and Coleraine, Georgia, was constructed. 

Many plantations sprang up over the State and their supplies 
of sugar and cotton were transported over the Kings Highway to 
the nearest ports. Later, in Revolutionary times, heavily loaded 
wagon trains brought in those who sided with the Crown to settle 
in British Florida. This road, which is now part of US 1, was the 
scene of many Revolutionary skirmishes. 

After the Revolution England found it impossible to hold Florida, 
so the peninsula was ceded back to Spain. This seriously affected 
travel in the colony, for the roads which the British had built con- 
necting the plantations with Kings Highway, now fell into disuse 
and subsequently disintegrated. 

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#no«er#t higlnCciijs 

SPAIN, in an effort to protect her interests in Florida, invited 
American colonists to settle the plantations left by the 
English. But hostile Seminoles made frequent inroads on 
these settlers causing them to complain bitterly to the Spanish 
government. Conditions became so serious that in 1812 the Re- 
public of Florida was formed, forcing Spain to permit local self- 
government in Northeast Florida. 

Andrew Jackson twice invaded Florida to punish marauding 
Seminole Indians. To end this period of chaos, the United States 
purchased Florida in 1821 and Jackson became the first terri- 
torial governor. 

The era which followed was the genesis of the State road system, 
for the long Seminole Wars, which eventually cost the United States 
ten million dollars and the lives of 1,500 soldiers, resulted in the 
establishment of forts in virtually every part of the State. These 
forts became the forerunners of numerous cities, and military roads 
connecting them have been the basis of many of the State's present 


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On March 3, 1845, both Florida and Iowa were admitted to 
statehood, thus keeping the balance of power between the North 
and South who were already embittered by the controversial slavery 
issue. Cotton, sugar, cattle and hogs were the chief products of 
the new State. These were transported to nearby ports on wooden 
carts drawn by teams of oxen. River steamers were coming into 
use at this time and the St. Johns and Apalachicola Rivers had 
many side and stern wheelers. 

Cottonton, later known as Apalachicola, was the most prosper- 
ous port on the Gulf. In 1860 cotton shipments aggregating more 
than $9,000,000 were sent from this port to coastal and foreign 
markets. From Georgia, Florida, and Alabama came the cotton 
which was transported along wagon trains to some point on the 
Apalachicola River, whence river steamers brought the lucre pro- 
ducing fiber down to the busy port. 

The period preceding the Civil War saw the creation of forty 
counties. As new settlers came into the young State, its port cities 
teemed with activity and the large plantation owners of the in- 
terior grew wealthy. 

X^icil VUciv JLeaVes iDvcwispovtciilon in (L>huos 

Even during the first two years the War between the States, 
Florida prospered, for the Confederate Army was fed large ship- 
ments of Florida beef. Many Florida ports were the important 
centers of war supplies. However, later during the war Federal 
gunboats blockaded all ports, and several raids by Union troops into 
middle Florida succeeded in destroying railroads and bridges, dis- 
rupting all means of transportation. 

Reconstruction in Florida was another dark chapter in the history 
of the State. The few railroads which had been constructed be- 
fore the war were left in ruins by Federal troops, and many of the 
ships which had been used prior to the war to transport goods to 
Northern markets either had been sunk or confiscated. The high- 
ways over the State were impassable. Poverty was widespread, 
and the State and local governments had no money to build roads 
or maintain law and order. 

The carpet-bag rule came to an end in 1878, and the legislature 
meeting that year framed a new constitution and set about to 
rebuild the devastated State. Two years later the State sold 
4,000,000 acres of its best land to Hamilton Disston for 25 cents 
per acre. With the $1,000,000 so accrued, State debts were paid 
and new developments initiated. 

Along the St. Johns River resort cities began to prosper about 
1870. Jacksonville, Palatka and Enterprise (opposite Sanford) be- 
came fashionable playgrounds to such persons as ex- President 
Grant, President Cleveland and his bride, and others, who sought 
recreation and entertainment at these resorts. 

^tetimbocvting, an tnc c)f ♦ ^onns 

For a decade following 1880, the St. Johns River had the largest 
river tonnage on the Atlantic seaboard south of the Hudson. 
Steamboat racing and attendant betting also gained notoriety in 
this era. So many boats blew up, scattering the crews and pas- 
sengers alike along the river banks, that the legislature passed an 
Get prohibiting this sport. 

Through passenger service was not inaugurated from New York 
to Jacksonville until 1886, when the Clyde Line sent the Cherokee 
upon her maiden voyage. Passenger service was extended to Miami 
in 1924. Today four steamship lines offer fast passenger service 
between Jacksonville and New York, with additional freight and 
passenger accommodations to other Atlantic and Gulf ports. 






op *J\ciil 

culvocicls +++++< 

it period of uiC all citing I 

INLAND travel prior to the coming of steam railroads was made 
by stage coach. Perhaps the longest stage coach line in the 
State was the one which ran between Gainesville and Tampa. 
This was a four-horse coach, the carriage being built in Cincinnati 
and equipped with high wheels to allow passage over streams with- 
out wetting the feet of patrons. Special springs were constructed 
for use on Florida corduroy roads. Forty-eight hours were required 
to travel the distance of less than 150 miles. 

Florida railways developed as a sort of friendly rivalry between 
two men, Henry M. Flagler and H. B. Plant. Flagler selected the 
East Coast for his developments and Plant took the West Coast. 
Regular passenger service was extended to Miami by 1896, and in 
1912 Flagler extended his railroad to Key West. The Flagler 
system is now the Florida East Coast Railway. 

Plant's system connecting Tampa and Jacksonville was completed 
in 1884. This railroad is now part of the Atlantic Coast Line. 
Between 1920 and 1927 the Seaboard Air Line built approximately 

Page Fourteen 





500 miles of track in Florida, including a Tampa-Miami route. 
Today, every section of the State is connected by rail and some of 
the fastest trains in service are scheduled between Florida points 
and Eastern and Western centers. 

After the Spanish-American War, Florida showed many evi- 
dences of prosperity, for increased rail and water facilities brought 
many isolated regions into prominence. Agricultural and indus- 
trial products were transported by rail to principal ports, and 
Tampa, Jacksonville and other cities became thriving metropolises. 

During these years Florida assumed a commanding position in 
the exportation of phosphate, naval stores, citrus, and timber. But 
many of the regions in the interior were still unprovided with ade- 
quate transportation and remained untouched. 

The East and West Coasts developed as resort sections and trade 
centers, since both rail and water had given them an outlet, but few 
roads existed anywhere within the State. With the advent of the 
automobile and desire to open new regions, it became apparent 
that roads were needed. 


voau problems left to the counties* 


PRIOR to 1915 road construction and maintenance in Florida 
was conducted by the several county commissioners with 
limited funds derived from county and district levies upon 
motor driven vehicles. Although a number of the richer districts 
had constructed a few highways of shell, sand-clay or marl, most 
of the work consisted of temporary repairs on unimproved roads. 

By 1915 Florida had 52 counties, each divided into five road 
districts with one commissioner representing each district. Since 
these commissioners were responsible only to the district they rep- 
resented, highway problems, often state-wide in interest were 
handled by an administrative body composed of 260 separate and 
localized heads. Under this disjointed and uncorrected system 
one district would profit from an able commissioner and ample 
funds, while a less fortunate section would be almost entirely with- 
out road improvements. 

Pave \Sijr'tccn 




V^cexviioiv of the &4wte Jvo€M,cL Zl/epavtmetitJ 

To provide for a responsible coordinating administrative body, 
an act was passed by the legislature in 1915 creating a State Road 
Department. This body was at first largely advisory, its only 
authority being that the counties were required to submit reports 
relative to the amounts and types of highway construction in their 
county. For operating expenses the department was allocated 15 
per cent of the net motor vehicle license taxes collected by the 
respective counties. The personnel consisted of a State Road Com- 
missioner, five members and six salaried employees, and its total 
expenditures during the first year amounted only to slightly more 
than $10,000.00. 

zrlgithocity Ji 

The limited scope of the department, as organized, hardly justi- 
fied its existence. Furthermore, in order to receive Federal funds 
that had been made available, its powers had to be enlarged to 
meet the requirements of the Federal Aid Road Act. Therefore, 
in 1917 the legislature amended the act creating the Road De- 

Page Sev 




m r - 






partment, and not only enlarged its powers but authorized as 
well the construction and maintenance of a system of State and 
Federal Aid roads. 

This act provided funds through a one-half mill State tax levy 
to meet Federal Aid requirements, and in addition, a State main- 
tenance tax from motor vehicle license sales. A further amend- 
ment required that the governor appoint one commissioner from 
each of the four congressional districts and one from the State at 
large, who, after the expiration of the terms as set forth in the 
act, were to serve for four years. 

The publishing of the first State road map and the erection of 
a laboratory in Gainesville to test road and bridge materials were 
major innovations in 1918. About this time consideration also 
was given to standardization in road design and specifications. 

Mainly because convict labor was mistreated under the lease 
system, legislation in 1919 placed all but 75 of the able-bodied 
State prisoners under the jurisdiction of the department for use 
in highway construction and maintenance. Convict living condi- 
tions were improved, hours of work reduced, and semi-permanent 
camp buildings were provided, replacing the old portable steel 
cages generally used by the counties. 

Records disclose Florida in 1918 as having 4,721 miles of im- 
proved highways, which, for the most part, were shell, marl, or sand- 

mmsr-' :"m& 


clay surfaced, in contrast to only eight miles of high type paving. 
And, at this time, many sections, mostly in the interior, lacked 
adequate hard surfaced road facilities, thus making statewide 
travel very difficult. 

In an effort to build roads connecting every community within 
the State the Road Department initiated its first major campaign 
of road building. This construction, however, was confined to trunk 
roads, since the policy then was to build roads having statewide 
interest. Realizing that funds were needed to carry on an exten- 
sive program, the legislature in 1921 enacted the first Florida 
gasoline tax, a levy of one cent on each gallon of gasoline, to be 
used in constructing and maintaining a State highway system. 

JLeospevity zTolloiVs the M/aUa of <JilgshU>ciy,s 

Thus, with the advent of good roads, Florida entered upon an 
era of commercial development. Its agricultural products were 
given an outlet to principal railroad and shipping centers, and 
citrus, celery, Irish potatoes and strawberries all found increasing 
demands in the markets of the North and East. Real estate reach- 
ed fabulous prices and in many places, where a tropical wilderness 
or everglades had been, small towns and subdivisions sprang up. 

In the space of a few years the resident population increased 
nearly 300,000 and during these same years Florida was caring for 



more than two million speculators and tourists. It is only natural 
to assume that all forms of transportation necessarily had to im- 
prove to care for the State's mounting traffic. As rail and water 
facilities were extended, new highways were built also. Hence, the 
activities of the State Road Department were so manifold, that 
the legislature in 1923 increased the gasoline levy to two cents. 

While the State was rapidly adding to its highway system there 
were, before 1923, no reliable statistics indicating the volume of 
traffic movement and without this knowledge it was impossible to 
accurately determine the types or widths needed in new pavement 
construction. To gather this information in detail, 22 traffic- 
count stations were placed in representative locations far enough 
removed from towns and cities to eliminate strictly local travel. 
These stations supplied so much useful data that they were made 
a permanent phase of the work. 

On the first State roads it was assumed that a nine-foot hard- 
surfaced center strip with three-foot semi-hard surface shoulders 
would be sufficient to accommodate all traffic. Since experience 
proved this type of construction to be wholly inadequate in caring 
for the increasing motor vehicles the policy was adopted in 1922 
of placing a minimum hard surface pavement width of eighteen 
feet on primary and sixteen feet on secondary roads. 

Zrl 15 u^L^vtlng, J^cotyvani J5 


By the end of 1922 there were 550 separate units of highway 
under State maintenance which, for the most part, were widely 
isolated from one another. As the prosecution of the work was 
becoming increasingly heavier the need for a definite program of 
maintenance became evident as well as the necessity for a budget 
system of orderly highway improvement. Therefore, since 1923, 
State roads, in compliance with the statute enacted that year, 
have been administered under the budget system which requires 
the department to make up an estimate of funds available for 
maintenance and construction purposes in the forthcoming year. 
Under this plan, except in cases of extreme emergency, only those 
roads which have been included in the annual budget receive funds 
for road improvements. 

In 1923 the legislature enacted the "Miller Bill/' which provided 
for locating, designing and enlarging the system of State roads. 
Moreover, the act mandated that these roads were to become the 
property of the State when constructed. Since the passage of the 
act, the designated State Road system has been increased from 

time to time by subsequent legislation until its total mileage now 
approximates more than 12 # 000 miles, of which, a considerable 
portion is represented only by proposed locations. 

Between the years 1923 and 1929, Florida entered upon its great- 
est era of road building and during this period the Road Depart- 
ment's average expenditures approximated $14,000,000 annually, 
inclusive of the regular Federal Aid and Federal Emergency ap- 
propriations which aggregated more than $25,000,000 for the seven 
years covered. Florida may well be proud of her highways built 
during these years for such well known roads as the Tamiami Trail, 
the Coastal Highway, Spanish Trail, Dixie Highway, and others 
were either under construction or were completed. In addition to 
roads constructed by the department, many miles of hard surfaced 
highways have been added from time to time to the total mileage 
through efforts of the several counties. 

From 1923 to 1929 additional gasoline taxes were imposed. The 
State Road Department received three cents from July 1925 to 
July 1929, then suffered a reduction to two cents until July 1931, 
when three cents was again allotted, the amount now available to 
the department from State taxes. Today, the eight cent gasoline 
tax enforced is allocated as follows: three cents to the State Road 
Department; three cents to the counties for the retirement of road 
and bridge bonds and for purchase of investments under the Kan- 
ner bill; one cent to the genera! revenue fund; and one cent excise 
tax levied by the Federal government. 

Realizing that highways properly maintained will render more 
service and return larger dividends on the investment, a routine 
system of improvements has been a major activity since 1929. Ade- 
quate maintenance conserves the original road and furnishes the 
motorist transportation with safety, comfort, and economy of opera- 
tion. In many cases the type of surface is changed, the road widen- 
ed, and every up-to-date engineering feature which will assist in the 
elimination of driving hazards is included. National standard high- 
way markers and signs have been adopted so that even the most 
casual driver can easily recognize them. 

,^'^' : 

In 1933 the legislature created the Division of Aviation and 
authorized an annual expenditure of $20,000. The Civil Works 
Administration augmented the funds appropriated by the state 
and made it a statewide project which was continued under the 
Emergency Relief and the Works Progress Administrations. 


Work under a Division of Roadside Improvement began in 1934. 
Its essential duties are the acquisition of and proper ordering of 
200-foot rights-of-way and the reconditioning of roadway earth 

At Gainesville, a complete up-to-date testing laboratory has been 
in operation since 1923, and here, too, are the headquarters of the 
Equipment Division, both essential units of any state road de- 

zJ^lovuLii s lewdest tjoVevn menial until 

TODAY, the State Road Department has become the largest 
single department in Florida's government. With more 
than 3,000 employees, its roads and equipment are valued 
in excess of $165,000,000. Annual expenditures for construction 
and maintenance from State revenues, approximate $7,500,000, 
which is augmented by $1,700,000 from Federal Aid funds. In 
recent years Federal Emergency grants have added to these com- 
bined totals, and in 1936 these subsidies alone amounted to more 
than $4,800,000. 


At present there are 12,383 miles of highways in the State 
designated system, of which 7 # 264 are hard surfaced, with the 
department actually maintaining 6,927 miles. Florida also has 
over 75 miles of bridges of varying lengths and types in the state 

The headquarters at Tallahassee are the administrat ive and 
advisory body for the State Road Department. In reality the 
department is directed by the voters of Florida at large for they 
elect to represent them, the Governor, who in turn appoints the 
five members of the State Road Commission and designates its 
chairman. By law, the chairman in turn becomes the chief ad- 
ministrator of the department and under him is placed a com- 
petent staff of engineers, accountants, attorneys, and clerical aides. 
For organization purposes the State has been divided into five 
divisions, each in charge of a division engineer. Hence, the State 
Road Department became a well organized and efficent body, 
designed to supervise the construction and maintenance of a fine 
State highway system as well as to render assistance to any of 
the several counties when called upon to solve their highway 



JiuvccLii of \Livblic I/toads! 

FEDERAL Aid started July 11 # 1916, when Congress created the 
Bureau of Public Roads under the Department of Agriculture 
to cooperate with the several states and territories in the 
construction of roads and bridges. Congress yearly appropriates 
funds for the Bureau to allocate to the respective states for road 
construction. After administrative costs have been deducted, these 
funds are apportioned on the following basis: one-third in the 
ratio of the state's population to the population of the United States, 
one-third in the ratio of the state's area to the area of the United 
tares, and one-third in the ratio of the road mileage within the 
state to the road mileage of the United States. 

In 1923, Florida with the approval of the Bureau, established a 
Federal system of roads, which represents seven per cent of the 
total mileage originally certified by the state at the beginning of 
Federal cooperation. Later this system was further divided between 
interstate and intrastate roads. However, the Bureau has not 
participated in all the Seven Per Cent System since construction 


with State funds exceeded the limited amount of available Federal 
money. Therefore, in recent years this system has reached such 
a state of completion that it has been necessary to increase its 
mileage to advantageously use available Federal Aid appropria- 
tions. Under regular Federal Aid the Bureau joins in the construc- 
tion of bridges and roads to the extent of 50 per cent of the par- 
ticipating cost. 

Up to 1931 the Federal regulations required that Federal funds 
must be matched with at least 50 per cent state or other funds. 

zJvellef \Tun,cis ZJi 


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Beginning with 1931, in addition to regular Federal Aid, several 
emergency appropriations were provided to stimulate employment 
throughout the Nation, on which reimbursement by deductions from 
future regular appropriations was to be made. Later, however, 
under the Hayden-Cartwright Act of 1934, repayment to the Fed- 
eral Government of the emergency advances in 1931-32 was can- 
celled. In the case of the National Industrial Recovery Act of 
1933, though, no reimbursement was necessary, since this was an 
outright grant to the several states. 

As the main purpose of these emergency appropriations was to 
afford the maximum use of labor, costs being secondary, certain 
restrictions were placed by Congress in carrying them out. In 
general, however, the same rules and regulations prevailed as per- 
tained to regular Federal Aid. 

Recognizing the proven merits of road construction and the con- 
tinued need for relieving unemployment, in 1934, Congress passed 
the Hayden-Cartwright Act. This act authorized another outright 
grant for the fiscal year 1934-35 and in addition provided for a 
return to the regular Federal Aid basis discontinued in 1933-34. 

The Act further provided that if any state passes legislation 
diverting funds that were authorized by state law for the con- 
struction, improvement and maintenance of highways at the time 
of the passage of the Hayden-Cartwright Act, such state will be 
deprived of a part of its regular Federal Aid apportionment, not 
to exceed one-third of such apportionment for the fiscal year for 
which the apportionment is made. 

ytigtiuiuys J^lcinniity &uvCetyS fastablish&cL 

Another provision of the Hayden-Cartwright Act, if the individual 
state elected to do so, was that it was permissible to set aside one 
and one-half per cent of all available Federal allocations to the 
states through the respective road departments for the furtherance 
of highway planning surveys. The surveys were for the purpose of 
gathering factual data on all publicly used roads within the state 
in order to provide available information in future road construction. 

The Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935, provided out- 
right grants to the several states for elimination of hazards at 
railroad crossings and also for improvement of the Federal Aid, 
State and County system of roads. 

Congress in June 1936, provided additional funds for elimination 
of hazards at railroad crossings, to improve secondary or feeder 
roads, and to continue the yearly regular Federal Aid allotments. 
In addition to the foregoing appropriations, Florida received its 
quota of Federal funds for the construction of roads in the National 
forests within the state. 

Page Twenty-six 

\Dh& &pe*z€v< 

NO longer are civilized nations content to survive by laissez 
faire methods; they \ now demand carefully planned pro- 
grams of expansion and national development. While con- 
troversial issues have been injected into many of these plans, the 
motives behind them are basically sound, for governmental bodies 
are only using the same procedure large corporations and business 
enterprises have successfully followed; for many years. 

The United States has been no exception to this world-wide trend, 
for in 1933, under President Roosevelt's policy to inventory natural 
and human resources, the National Resources Committee was form- 
ed and planning boards set up in many states, including Florida. 
Two years later the legislature made the State Planning Board 
an official governmental activity. 

It is natural, then, that in the light of the foregoing events trans- 
portation will demand relief from those conditions which have 
hindered its development since the first conveyances came into 
being. When we consider, even in 1902, H. G. Wells exclaimed 
"that the ghost of an old horse is still trotting in front of every 
express train in the world/ 7 and that this allusion holds true in the 
case of every automobile in existence, it is evident definite changes 
must come in the future. 

While this noted philosopher turned his thoughts to other chan- 
nels, had he followed the development of highway travel, we may 
have been saved from many of the perplexing situations with which 
we are now confronted. We were not content to call the auto- 
mobile "the horseless carriage," but forced it to traverse the same 
roads of its predecessors. Today, the spectre of the old gray mare 
still stalks in front of every motor vehicle in America! 




Hly^panxLaiv <J%lgJfik 

tr zr zr 

they are out? biggest business* 

FLORIDA, like the nation, is utterly dependent upon the auto- 
mobile and the highway it uses — a fact that cannot be re- 
futed or ignored. Bearing in mind that we, as a nation, 
literally and actually live on wheels; that today there is one motor 
vehicle for every five persons in the United States, and the future 
presages art even greater ratio, it is imperative that our highways 
be given due and immediate consideration as to their importance 
to the State. 

The highways of America have reached the proportions of "big 
business/' Over two billion dollars are spent annually for high- 
way programs, giving direct employment to more than 1,000,000 
persons and indirectly affecting, conservatively, one-sixth of its 
population. And in like proportion, the highways of Florida are 
its biggest business, and responsibility. The growth, development 
and prosperity of every person, village, city and industry in the 
State is vitally concerned with its highway system, over which roll 
the citizenry, the millions of visitors, and the untold and, as yet, 
unknown tonnage of its products. 

mmm mmmmr 

Page Ticenty-eigh f 


C^oodf Zsio&ils Xrodiece JL^urije JjtvtcL&n.cls 

Our highways may no longer be viewed in the light of govern- 
mental expense, except insofar as the logic of past programs may 
be questioned in part. Every dollar of public funds expended for 
highways has returned enormous dividends to the State, private 
industry, trade and commerce, to say nothing of the incalculable 
and intangible values rendered to the communities and society. 
Highway investment invites travel, reduces sectionalism, makes 
possible the development and utilization of the State's great and 
unused natural resources, and furthers all activities within its 
borders, for there is none but in one way or another is hot de- 
pendent upon highways. It is evident then, that highway usage 
should be encouraged, rather than retarded, and roads looked up- 
on as profitable investments rather than a necessary evil. 

It is inevitable that this, and each succeeding generation must 
face and eventually solve its own transportation problems. By the 
same measure this is true of this State, for in fairness to its 
citizens, industry and visitors, Florida must be prepared to challenge 
the future! It is significant that Florida's present highways rank 
among the first in point of development, with 30 per cent of its 
32,000 miles of publicly used rural roads, improved or surfaced, 


Page Twenty-nine 

^^0Kj |W.»'''iWi i 


- -C.;*:v -t*l 


as compared to a ten per cent average throughout the United 
States. But despite this excellent record, the State must take 
cognizance of the stupendous burden that will be placed upon its 
highways in the future. Failure to recognize and properly prepare 
for these demands that will be made upon our highways will result 
in chaos, and the regrettable loss of life and property will impede 
the progress as a whole. 

Manifestly, then, any improvements or additions to the State 
highway system should be planned soundly and with economy, if, 
in the future, Florida is to keep pace with the nation, or hold its 
lead in providing good roads and other transportational facilities. 


COffOfttl^ lit 1^1 lillili lt£j + + +++■ 

loctdct to base fututre vaacls an, suetfey + 

ITH commendable earnestness, Florida, under the sponsor- 
ship and with the cooperation of the United States 
Bureau of Public Roads, together with more than 40 

other states, is conducting a Statewide Highway Planning Survey. 

The Survey will indicate a rational highway program for a com- 


prehensively developed system, based upon facts and studies of 
all highway problems and relating situations throughout the en- 
tire state. £2SSk^§§: 
Rational highway planning is not an academic problem, of in- 
terest only to highway engineers and economists/ but a sound 
business-like procedure whereby an analysis is made of existing 
road facilities, road usage, together with an inventory and study 
of road finances, and a program of future improvements and con- 
struction proposed and predicated on factual data obtained. 

Zrlll Zstoacls Will oe JtvVatv for tad 

As no plan can be derived or attempted until the existing high- 
ways of the State are accurately located, every mile of road that 
is the origin or destination of public travel, and upon which motor 
cars move, will be inventoried and recorded on a series of county 

It is essential that the roads of the future must be made safe. 
With this objective in mind the inventory will take cognizance of 
all types of road surfaces and their conditions as well as definitely 
locating such hazards as sharp curves, right angles- and road 
grades, and the blind spots where drivers traveling at high speeds 


Page Thirty-one 

J^r - 1—" ^ mi 

/ '— r-™- -™^rr-™Jbfi- 



are unable to see far enough ahead or clearly around curves. 
All railroads, streams and navigable waterways, bridges, femes and 
aviation fields will be located and the condition of all crossings 
carefully ascertained. In rural areas, the survey will determine the 
distribution of population, dwellings, schools, churches, stadia, and 
other places of congregation with respect to existing roads as 
well as a complete knowledge of topographic and cultural data. 

Less than 20 of our 67 counties have maps that can be relied 
upon with any degree of dependability. Now, for the first time 
there will be a complete set of county maps, covering all essential 
information, invaluable not only to the State Road Department, 
but to every other State and county governmental organization 
as well. 

^e ^vciffU &budy» 

sis-, or 

A planned highway system of the future will be largely based 
upon the facts obtained by an inventory of the usage given every 
mile of publicly used rural road in the State. An accurate analysis 
of the present traffic will bring out the faults in the roads of the 
past, and at the same time show the trends that will, in all proba- 
bility, greatly influence the highway builders of the future. 

A traffic analysis will determine the relative volume of all traffic 
movements over every mile of public road in the State. It will 
present a picture of the types and classifications of motor vehicles 
using these roads and, with the evidence of sufficient cost and 
traffic data, accurately determine future road requirements in the 
order of need. 

Approximately 2,000 traffic count stations of varying significance 
form a network over the entire State, from which comes a com- 
posite picture of the flow of traffic over every mile of public high- 
ways and the relative use of each and every section. 

There are 54 mobile loadometer weight scale stations and four 
permanent pit scale stations to gather information regarding 
weights, measurements and loading practices of all types of ve- 
hicles found on the highways. 

Ten automatic recorders are in use for continuous records of 
representative traffic flow. Six of the counters are on main high- 
ways at points of typical characteristics and four are located on 
secondary roads for the purpose of determining differences 

between fluctuations of traffic on main and secondary systems. The 
automatic recorder is designed to count passing vehicles without 
counting pedestrians. This is accomplished by two parallel beams 
of light directed across the roadway upon photo-electric cells. 
Interruptions of both light beams by passing vehicles actuate a 
relay which in turn controls and operates the recording mechanism. 
Accordingly, pedestrians interrupting only one beam at a time are 
not recorded. A clock mechanism in the recorder totals hourly 
and daily traffic on a roll tape. 


Privately owned passenger vehicle mileage is five times greater 
than the combined mileage of all other public conveyances. This 
includes bus, steam and electric railroad lines, steamships and 
aeroplanes. Twenty-six million cars travel 200 billion miles each 
year and busses carry nearly as many passengers as do trains. 

As significant of the trend of the times, eighty per cent of the 
traffic on Florida's highways consists of passenger cars which 
usually demand high speed transportation. 

Since the average motorist is now traveling twice as far each 
year as he did ten years ago, the traffic pressure upon our roads 
is terrific. The highways are becoming congested-— a condition 
that is among the chief contributing causes of highway accidents. 
To alleviate this problem steps must be taken immediately. Ration- 
al planning simplifies road construction of the future by obtaining 
factual information on conditions as they are today. 


eucUs iPhcoiif} the zJiig,HiVcii}s 

The movement of citrus constitutes an enormous usage of Flor- 
ida's highways. Each orange and grapefruit travels along the 
highway at some time or other on its way to market, and in many 
instances, several times before it reaches the consumer. Annually 
27 million boxes of fruit are hauled from the groves to the packing 
houses, where, after processing, much of it is loaded on trucks 
and trailers to be taken to points of trans-shipment. Often this 
entails long, swift and heavy hauls over the length and breadth of 
the State. Our highways are none too adequate for present com- 
mercial citrus movements, to say nothing of other agricultural 
products, and with each new grove the traffic grows denser and 
denser, further endangering the lives of the motorist. 

/ iy i 

■•"■" afe f 


Jiuses Zrlee. C^rea-i ^JiifitiiVcii/ It 


Since more than 600 communities in Florida are wholly dependent 
upon the highways for an outlet to other centers, bus transporta- 
tion is a factor that must be intelligently considered in any digest 
of road usage. Buses serve many of these isolated regions and 
therefore have become a necessary part of the industrial and 
social scheme of the State. 

The majority of our highways were built before the bus industry 
developed into a coordinated statewide and national transporta- 
tion system. But if the buses continue to make increasing demands 
upon our/ highways, we must, in the future, construct roads to 
accommodate them. When we realize that one bus company last 
year hauled more than 800,000 intrastate passengers, it is highly 
possible that Hiis form of transportation will become even more 
popular in the coming years. 

WUVel ZjYtait 





Florida's traffic is unusual in many ways but one of the chief 
points to be considered is that each year the seasonal visitation 


- ■■■' 


of tourists far exceeds our permanent populatiom^O^ore^l^J 
2,000,000 vacationers annually cross the State's borders, spreading 
in all directions as they roll along our roads seeking recreation, 
health, and sunshine and placing additional strain on our high- 
ways. To care for the demands made by these motoring visitors 
we must, in the future, modernize our highways. ^SSOTfE^ §£ 

An inventory showing this type of highway usage will undoubted- 
ly bring to light some astounding facts; information Ithjat cert 
has a definite place in any plan for a future highway system 

The touring motorist has a tendency to follow the line of least 
resistance. He seeks and travels over the best roads, often missing 
much of the finest scenery, the major points of interest, and those 
attractions so abundantly bestowed upon Florida by a kindly Pro- 
vidence. A rational planning of our highway system will consider 
the historic and scenic values that have proved so profitable to 
other states, and which, in Florida, have been greatly minimized. 

Another problem that confronts the State is the increasing num- 
ber of house trailers. As the trailer-car mode of transportation 
increases, plans for their future must be made and can be based 
only upon facts and information obtained in this Survey. 

■*m- : :: 



Zstocid ZsieVaiiiies Studied by, duevay 

Lost, but not least in importance, is the financial survey. Pri- 
marily, the objective of this survey is to ascertain the exact source 
of highway revenues and their distribution, and to establish the 
existing relationship between road programs with other govern- 
mental functions and their degree of relative importance. This 
will necessitate an examination of all governmental revenues, Fed- 
eral, State and local, and an exhaustive compilation of statistics, 
together with a detailed analysis of highway expenditures and 

The financial survey will include the advisibility of adjustments 
in any existing tax inequalities and will, further, indicate the source 
of revenue from all motor vehicles within certain areas and esti- 
mate the proportionate share of road costs to be borne by each 
type of vehicle so classified. The survey will then propose ways 
and means for financing an adequate State road program, based 
on a reasonable and equable method of taxation. 

Under a road life study an effort will be made to determine the 
economic life expectancy of various types of surfaces and other 
parts of the highway structure and the amounts and trends of 
construction and maintenance costs. With this information pro- 
jected future programs can be reduced to an annual basis for 
determination of their feasibility by comparison with the expected 
total of future annual revenue. 

v ; 

shaiilxl tylociclci plan hee ltifflnVciifs+ 

A RATIONAL planning of the highway system will insure the 
proper expenditure of funds and properly correlate the 
revenues with the benefits to be derived. It will elimi- 
nate attempted highway improvements based upon hasty judgment 
or insufficient investment and traffic information. 

An inventory of existing road conditions and road facilities, road 
usage, and highway financing, as included in a rational planning, 
will direct the selection of a highway system that will include all 
roads that should be built or improved within the next twenty 
years. Moreover, the survey will accurately indicate the priority 
for such operations and will keep the road program within the 
financial limitations of the various governmental units. 

Definitely, Florida should plan its future highway programs 
logically, scientifically, and rationally. We need more roads to 
meet immediate needs in every section of the State. Wider roads 
must be furnished to facilitate motor transportation. Separate 
traffic lanes are needed to keep freight, passenger, fast and slow 
automobiles apart. Sharp turns and dangerous crossings must be 
eliminated, improved grades and banked curves must be built, 
and greater visibility provided. Our highways must be constructed 
to meet the demands of the modern automobile. -^_ 

APPROXIMATELY 16 cents of every dollar of highway revenues were diverted by 
state governments in 1935 to purposes other than for which they were collected; 
enough to build more than 20,000 miles of hard-surfaced roads. 

TODAY, in many large cities horse drawn vehicles are not permitted to use 
downtown streets; yet, prior to 1900, motor vehicles were not allowed on the 
streets of the nation's capital because they frightened horses and were thought 
to be a menace to life and property. 

IN 1903, the first coast-to-coast run by a motor vehicle took 57 days on the 
road. Last year, one driver raced the distance between the Atlantic and Pacific 
in 53 hours. 

OVER 500,000 out-of-state cars enter Florida annually, bringing tourists who 
spend more than $100,000,000 within the state. The gasoline taxes they pay 
exceed $2,000,000. 

CAUTION: High speeds are exceedingly dangerous: (a) after dark (b) on 
slippery pavements (c) at road intersections (d) through villages (e) rounding 
sharp curves and climbing steep grades where clear vision is not possible. 

OUR national highway program represents a two billion dollar business annually. 
Directly and indirectly, nearly one-sixth of the nation's population are dependent 
upon the many branches of highway transportation. 

OF the 3,000,000 miles of highways in the United States, only 358,000 are 
hard-surfaced, the rest still remain muddy troughs or dusty trails. A recent 
survey in Florida showed that for a total of 32,000 miles of all types of public 
roads, 7,100 miles are hard-surfaced, representing a much higher percentage of 
good roads than the average for the country as a whole. 

KEY WEST, the nation's southermost city, will soon be joined to the mainland 
with a new two-lane highway. Traversing the subtropics of Florida, this unique 
highway extends over the many coral keys lying south of the peninsula. A series 
of bridges, causeways, and roads make up this route, from which beautiful vari- 
colored flowers and birds are seen. What could be rarer than the last 50 miles 
of this jaunt overseas? The smell of salt and the spray of the ocean is the 
motorist's constant companion as his car speeds over the concrete between the 
broad Atlantic Ocean and the temperamental Gulf of Mexico. 

Page Thirty-eight 

d a mm $ 


v^^:.^ ; •::l«lSi:#: 

ABOVE the thickly congested areas in Jersey City lies the great Pulaski Skyway, 
the most expensive highway in North America. Slightly more than six miles in 
length, its construction cost nearly $20,000,000. But the skyway is a sound in- 
vestment, for its affords freedom from traffic congestions and saves countless 
minutes, priceless to modern industry. 

WHO invented the automobile? It was an ingenious Frenchman, Nicholas C. 
Cugnot, who, by the way, was the first careless and reckless driver. In 1769 
Cugnot roared down the streets of Paris at the astounding speed of three miles 
per hour in a queer contraption which consisted of a copper kettle on three 
wheels. Cugnot's failure to provide sufficient brakes for his steam driven ve- 
hicle forced him to knock down a stone wall, for which he was promptly imprisoned. 

OVER 3,000,000 miles of roads reach virtually every section of the United States. 
Over this vast network, which comprises more than one-third of the highways of 
the world, 26,000,000 motor vehicles, or 70 per cent of the world's total, bring 
the hinterlands in contact with the nation's more populous centers. In Africa, 
a continent three times greater than the United States, only 435,000 miles of 
roads have been built for its 415,000 motor vehicles. By comparison, then it is 
not true that transportation may be termed the mother of commerce and 

LAST year 36,000 lives in the United States were snuffed out due to careless 
and reckless driving, and over 1,000,000 people were injured — many for life. 
This means that the driver of every twentieth car will be in an automobile acci- 
dent before this year is over. Is this not the place for a firm resolution to be 
cautious when using the highways? 

THE largest single motor vehicle owner in the United States has 13,000 trucks, 
4,200 cars, 6,000 miscellaneous trailers, and 500 busses. 

GOOD roads pay dividends; (a) they reduce car driving costs through less gaso- 
line consumption, tire wear, depreciation and repairs, and (b) through lower road 
costs to the community resulting from savings in road repairs and building. Studies 
have shown that good roads make possible savings from $50 up to $150 a year 
to the average motorist. 

ON a mileage basis city residents drive twice as much on rural roads as they 
do on city streets. 






\2foa iDcist \^ocisi++++++^ 

its outstanding lanAntxtvlcs! 

FERNANDINA was once the trade center for many large 
plantations. The Spanish built a fort here in 1680 and later 
during American times, Fort Clinch, which is now a State 
Park, was constructed. Shrimping forms the major industry. Fine 
seafood dinners, principally oysters, are served during season. 

JACKSONVILLE, the leading commercial center of the south- 
eastern seaboard, has the largest port in Florida. A series of fine 
roads connect Jacksonville with every section of the nation. It is 
the junction of five railroads. 

Comparatively modern in construction because the city was razed 
by fire in 1901, Jacksonville streets and boulevards are well paved. 
Riverside, Ortega and Avondale are the more exclusive residential 
sections. Several beautiful drives, including 36 miles of hard sand 
beaches packed by Nature are less than 18 miles away. 

Jacksonville golf courses are among the best in the country. The 
St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean, and many creeks and small rivers 

CI o 

Pag a 



abound in fresh and salt water fish. A new million dollar kennel 
club was erected in 1935. 

Jacksonville surpasses every other city in the South in municipally 
owned public utilities, having its own electric light plant, water 
works, radio station, zoo and two golf courses. 

In ST. AUGUSTINE, oldest city in the United States, history is 
found under the ground as well as above it. An Indian cemetery, 
uncovered but otherwise undisturbed, may be seen. Near the city 
gates, themselves a landmark, an ancient moat is being cleared, 
and what is left of St. Augustine's past is to be restored and pre- 
served as a national monument. 

In 1565 Pedro Menendez de Aviles, a Spanish admiral, founded 
St. Augustine as headquarters for a chain of coast defenses. The 
great San Marcos fortress, now Fort Marion, a national monument, 
was the most powerful stronghold. 

St. Augustine early became the terminus of the first transcon- 
tinental highway in America, and a zero marker records this fact. 
Many of the old houses are preserved as points of interest and are 
open to the public. 



PALATKA, once the chief port of the St. Johns River, has been 
built back to a position of importance through the development 
of the Azalea Ravine Gardens. The gardens, which contain more 
than 100,000 plants, are one of the beauty spots of Florida and 
annually attract thousands of tourists. Easily accessible by boat, 
rail or bus, the city is now a shipping point for citrus fruits. 

PAYTONA BEACH is situated near one of the rich hammock- 
lands of Florida. Dense tropical foliage amid great oak and mag- 
nolia groves add to the beauty of the area. 

A Spanish mission was established early in the 18th century, and 
a great sugar mill was erected by American pioneers soon after 
the purchase of Florida by the United States. The reputed ruins 
of these structures still remain standing. 

The beach is a gay resort, while on the mainland a town of 
winter homes faces the beautiful Halifax River. Daytona Beach 
is as popular in summer as in winter, and boasts of one of the 
finest beaches in the world. 

.«v~'--. : 



!ft.«*t ~» fMSW •>■■>* ^ 

- -it .' " 


NEW SMYRNA, one of the oldest and most historic cities in 
Florida, was settled in 1768 by Dr. Andrew Turnbull, an English- 
man, and 1,500 Minorcans. 

Many relics may still be seen in and around New Smyrna, among 
which are the old stone wharf and fort, a Spanish mission, syrup vats 
and the drainage canals dug by Turnbull. J ( 

TITUSVILLE, nearly half way between Jacksonville and Miami, 
has a number of citrus packing plants, excellent tourist accom- 
modations and nearby fishing spots. 

COCOA, a popular resort city, is noted for its fishing. From 

Cocoa to Rockledge is one of the most attractive drives in the 
State, a winding, palm-fringed highway skirting the Indian River. 

VERO BEACH, a resort city, possesses a bathing beach, play- 
ground and many tourist attractions. Just south of the city on 
the main highway are the McKEE JUNGLE GARDENS. Exquisitely 
landscaped, the gardens are one of Florida's show places. 



"1Z-? *"*,■ 

FT. PIERCE, named from a Seminole Indian war fort, possesses a 
harbor with docking facilities for ocean-going steamers. 

WEST PALM BEACH and PALM BEACH, sister resort cities, 
were founded by Henry M. Flagler, who built the Florida East Coast 
Railroad. West Palm Beach is the commercial center of the two 
cities, Palm Beach remaining the exclusive winter resort of 
America's wealthy and social elite. Many of the residences of 
Palm Beach are the work of Addison Mizner, the architect. Besides 
its palatial homes and hotels, a 1,000-foot fishing pier, polo field 
and golf courses, Palm Beach is noted for Bradley's, a famous 
gambling casino. 

The agricultural possibilities of the great EVERGLADES is ex- 
emplified by the extensive planting of sugar cane, beans and lettuce 
in the muck lands around Lake Okeechobee, which has an area of 
717 square miles. 


Named for a Seminole Indian war fort, FT. LAUDERDALE pro- 
vides anchorage for hundreds of pleasure and fishing craft It is 
the base for the U. S. Coast Guard. A Seminole Indian village is 

At PORT EVERGLADES, the terminus for the Havana Ferry, 
docking facilities for ocean steamers. 

MIAMI, built during an age which demands speed/ lost little time 
providing rapid transportation for its half-million annual patrons. 
Its international airport and seaplane base is said to be the world's 
largest. Ocean liners, railroads, buses and automobiles transport 
hordes to the winter playground. 

Towering skyscrapers form a majestic background for beautiful 
Biscayne Bay. Many bayfront drives and broad boulevards, fringed 
with palms, pass through a colorful array of sub-tropical flora. 


Numerous night clubs, cabarets and palatial hotels offer the 
latest recreation features. Greyhounds and horses race daily during 
the winter season. 

Miami affords almost everything in the sporting realm, boating, 
golfing, tennis, yachting, boxing, swimming and surf bathing. 

Connected by three fine causeways, fashionable MIAMI BEACH 
lies east of Biscayne Bay. This island municipality, with its ex- 
quisite hotels and apartments, is host to the nation's elite and 

CORAL GABLES and HIALEAH are both a part of Greater 
Miami. The former is the seat of Miami University. 

The proposed EVERGLADES NATIONAL PARK, 1,300,000 acres 
southwest of Miami, includes the 4,500 acre ROYAL PALM STATE 
PARK. Selected as a plant, bird and animal sanctuary, the park 
has flora and fauna unlike anything else above the 26° latitude — 
tropical birds by the thousands, orchids and ferns (with fronds 
20 feet long), the panther and cougar, sailfish, shark and tarpon. 
The Ingraham Highway, automobile and foot trails traverse the 
park grounds. 

<&JjS^&t* **^ Sk 

s & *? 

^vp p f 

.. -^V.-:*- ■.*"< 


The OVERSEAS HIGHWAY departs from the mainland a few 
miles below the Redland district and reaches over a long line of 
Florida keys to the island city of Key West. Except for 36 miles, 
where ferry service is now supplied, this highway is one of the most 
unusual and scenic drives in America. 

KEY WEST, 125 miles south of Miami, lies at the end of the 
Florida Keys. Not only has this city an unusual location, historical 
background, and a diversified population, but it is the only city of 
any size in the United States that is an absolute terminal for all 
land traffic. Air lines connect with Miami and South and Central 

Practically every variety of fish abound in its waters and many 
sportsmen come here. More than four million pounds of fish are 
shipped annually from this point. Sponge fishing and turtle catch- 
ing are large industries. Restaurants specialize in prized dishes 
of green turtle soup, crabs, lobsters and other seafoods. Excellent 
views of the marine growth can be observed from glass-bottom 

Pa fie Forty-seven 

3 E^^^ 

gFHg|r Bga icg 




tneougH the ZJiicLt^a unci JLctue dections+ 

GAINESVILLE is the seat of the University of Florida which 
has one of the most beautiful campuses in America. The 
university's annual enrollment is 3,000 students. 

North of Gainesville is the DEVIL'S MILLHOPPER, a phenomenal 
lime rock sink. 

A network of good roads connect Gainesville with most parts 
of the State and many scenic drives are in this locality. In recent 
years the planting of tung oil trees has been one of the chief 
agricultural pursuits. 

OCALA is near the site of many phosphate mines and lime rock 
quarries which provide its citizens with a lucrative income. A few 
miles east of Ocala is the OCALA NATIONAL FOREST and just 
south of the city limits is CAMP ROOSEVELT, headquarters for 
the cross-state ship canal project. SANTOS, five miles below the 







city, was the site of huge excavations made in 1935 for the route 
over which the canal is supposed to traverse. 

SILVER SPRINGS, from which flow 20,000,000 gdllons of water 
per hour, are six miles east of Ocala. Glass-bottom boats carry 
sightseers over the springs and down the Oklawaha River into which 
the spring runs. Enormous fish, many types of marine growth and 
huge turtles are visible even through the depth of 80 feet. In the 
basin of the springs, which is 3,000 feet in diameter, various types 
of under-water caverns are observed. A trip over the springs in 
the glass-bottom boats, or one down the Oklawaha River, is one of 
lasting enjoyment. 

Essentially a college town, DELAND is the home of Stetson 
University, which has 500 students, about half of whom are from 
the North. 

SANFORD produces more than one-fourth of all the celery of 
the United States and for miles the air is filled with the spicy 
fragrance of this cellulose vegetable. Every available space in 
the city, including the lawns, is devoted to the growing of celery 
and lettuce. 




Near Sanford is an old cypress tree reputed to be the largest 
of its kind in the world. This tree is 126 feet tall, 42 feet in cir- 
cumference, and is estimated to be over 3,000 years old. 

"A town that has become a university/ 7 a famous novelist de- 
scribed WINTER PARK # home of Rollins College. The college, 
established in 1885, attracted many distinguished Cuban families 
during the Spanish-American War and has grown steadily since. 
Across the campus is the "Walk of Fame/ 7 made of stones from 
the birthplaces of about 400 celebrities. 

ORLANDO, 'The City Beautiful/ 7 is the largest city in Central 
Florida. The 33 lakes within the city limits, each surrounded by a 
landscaped garden, together with the oaks that line almost every 
street, give the city the appearance of a huge park. Orlando lies 
in the center of one of the richest citrus producing sections in the 
State and ships thousands of oranges and grapefruit each year. 

EUSTIS is noted for its high altitude, healthful climate and pure 
water. TAVARES, located between this resort and Lake Dora, is in 
the heart of a fertile citrus area. MOUNT DORA, to the east, has 
been built on a plateau overlooking many beautiful lakes. 


Page Fifty 


LEESBURG is used extensively as a shipping point by farmers 
and industrialists of one of the most fertile regions in Central 
Florida. Watermelons, grapes, citrus, ferns and staple vegetables 
are shipped in large quantities. Kaolin is a leading product. 
Here also are the famed VENETIAN GARDENS. 

BUSHNELL is the center of a citrus, trucking, dairying and 
poultry region. DADE MEMORIAL PARK, near Bushnell, was the 
scene of the Dade Massacre. Here in 1835, more than 100 Ameri- 
can soldiers were killed in ambush by the Seminole Indians. 

KISSIMMEE is the center of the Florida cattle industry. Native 
beef is raised on the numerous ranches located on the Kissimmee 
prairie south and east of the city. 

LAKELAND, largest city in Polk County, is noted for its natural 
beauty and its importance as an educational center. Lakes, orange 
groves and parks attract many tourists. Southern College is 
located on the sloping shores of Lake Hollingsworth. This co- 
educational college has an average enrollment of 500 students. 
There are 15 lakes within the city limits, extending over an area 
whose average altitude of 216 feet above sea level approximates 



-M-af : ' : 




the highest in the State. The million-dollar civic center erected 
^i.^X-^here is one of the finest in Florida. 

Surrounded by 100 lakes, WINTER HAVEN, a citrus fruit pack- 
ing and canning center, is rapidly becoming a popular winter resort. 
An 18-hole golf course, excellent fishing, hunting and bathing 
are among its attractions. 

Representing a typical section of Florida are the CYPRESS 
GARDENS hear Winter Haven. Pathways leading through a jungle 
of cypress out in the lake, and among flowering shrubs, trees, 
vines and Orange groves, afford an unusual retreat for pleasure 
seekers. The gardens are noted for the Camellia japonicas, 
azaleas and rare tropical and aquatic plants. Cypress Gardens 
are best reached by boat from Lake Howard. 

LAKE WALES, in the heart of Florida's ridge section, is sur- 
rounded by hundreds of clear lakes and rolling hills covered with 
citrus groves. 

At Mountain Lake, a suburb of the city, is Iron Mountain, the 
site of the SINGING TOWER, a pink shaft of limestone built by 

(wo 1 o or 
Page Fifty -two 






Edward William Bok in memory of his grandparents. The tower 
contains a carillon which is played by Anton Brees, internationally 
famous carillonisr, every evening at sunset during the winter season. 
The largest bell in the carillon weighs 11 tons. Surrounding the 
tower is Mountain Lake Sanctuary, a large game and wild life 
preserve. jss2 l JBllS ;l 

A summer and winter resort, SEBRING, founded by Geo. Sebring, 
was modeled after the mythical Greek city, Heliopolis. It is the 
center of citrus fruit and truck gardening industries. 

HIGHLANDS HAMMOCK STATE PARK (1,200 acres) was pre- 
sented to the State by Mrs. John Roebling and is a gem of tropical 
and sub-tropical growth, a tamed jungle of shrubs, huge trees, 
palm forests and a riot of brilliantly colored vines. See the 1,000- 
year old tree, 31 feet in circumference. The park is traversed 
with automobile and foot trails. Picnicking areas are available. 

BARTOW, WAUCHULA and ARCADIA are the respective county 
seats of Polk, Hardee and DeSoto Counties. Phosphate, cattle, 
citrus and truck farming constitute their major activities. 


J''iyc Fifty -three 

^Ik^Bto^XiJi^l^ " i m 

i i" 



myieil foe its ItuntniocKlcinds* 

N the high hammock section is BROOKSVILLE, once the over- 
night stopping point for the stagecoach line between Gaines- 
ville and Tampa. 

INVERNESS is situated on Tsala Apopka Lake, which is 18 miles 
long and dotted with islands — excellent fishing and duck hunting. 

TARPON SPRINGS. Gaily colored boats, 20 miles of water- 
front and Old World customs distinguish the prosperous Greek 
colony of Tarpon Springs, leading sponge market of the United 
States. Greek Cross Day, on January 6th, is the only celebration 
of its kind in America and attracts thousands of visitors every year. 

CLEARWATER. Dividing Clearwater is the Bay-to-Bay Boule- 
vard, linking the Memorial Causeway to Clearwater Beach with the 
Davis Causeway across Old Tampa Bay to Tampa. 

"The Sunshine City" is the appellation given ST. PETERSBURG 
and the city is so seldom without the benefit of the health- 

Page Fifty-fou 




producing rays that a local newspaper gives away its home edition 
every day the sun does not shine before noon. 

St. Petersburg is truly a gathering place for elderly tourists, 
although there is a wide variety of entertainment for persons of 
all ages. 

Fishing is the principal sport of the visitors but basking in the 
sun on one of the more than 5,000 green-colored public benches, 
located along the streets and in the parks, is a favorite pastime. 
Checkers, horseshoe pitching and shuffleboard tournaments are 

Gandy Bridge, seven miles in length and one of the longest of its 
kind in the world, connects St. Petersburg with Tampa. 

To date TAMPA has stressed commerce and cigars. But since 
the decrease in shipping and the advent of nickel cigars, Tampa 
now strives for tourist trade. Without any effort on its part, the 
city has many features that invite the most exacting visitors. Plant 
Park, the waterfront, Port Tampa, Bayshore Drive, Davis Island and 
Ybor City are all worth seeing. 

Bayshore Drive, winding between the new five-mile seawall and 
the spacious estates bordering it, is one of the most beautiful 




boulevards in America. From the drive is seen Davis Island and 
its Spanish homes, hotels and apartments. Here, too # on this 
$15,000,000 plot of pumped up sand, is Tampa's magnificent 
municipal hospital. At the end of the drive is Bayfront Park, 
a recreational and fishing center. 

Port Tampa, the city's deep water harbor, is reached by con- 
tinuing nine miles out the Bayshore Road. 

The city offers all types of amusements, the major ones being 
fishing, golfing, swimming and greyhound racing during the winter 
at nearby SULPHUR SPRINGS. Fine catches of tarpon are fre- 
quently made in nearby Tampa waters. 

One of the landmarks of Tampa is the old Tampa Bay Hotel, 
which cost $3,500,000, and is said to be the finest example of 
Moorish architecture in America. The hotel now houses the Uni- 
versity of Tampa and near the huge structure stands an ancient 
oak under which De Soto is said to have parleyed with the Indians 
in 1539. 

Surrounding the hotel, Plant Park, Tampa's largest recreational 
space, includes the municipal auditorium and museum, zoo and 


bandshell. The park has many walkways along which numerous 
rare shrubs and flowers grow. Plant Field, adjoining the park, is 
the training camp of two major league baseball teams. 

In YBOR CITY are th 

cigar factories, Spanish and 

are the giant 

Italian restaurants, exclusive Latin clubs, and the atmosphere of 
Old World Spain. Visitors are escorted through the many cigar 
factories, which still excel in the clear Havana handmade varieties. 

HILLSBOROUGH RIVER STATE PARK, situated along the most 
beautiful section of the Hillsborough River, is noted for its forests 
of exotic beauty. Winding foot trails traverse park grounds. 

PLANT CITY, "the winter strawberry capital of America," ships 
over $1,000,000 worth of large strawberries annually to Northern 
markets. Truck farming and citrus are engaged in during the 
summer and fall. 

BRADENTON, a community of beautiful homes with landscaped 
grounds, can be readily appreciated when approached from the 
north over its mile-long bridge. From here the tourist observes 
the bay to the west, the large municipal pier, and a picturesque 
yacht basin. 

#il .if 


Near here is the old colonial home of Robert Gamble, where 
Judah P. Benjamin, Secretary of State of the Southern Confederacy, 
took refuge following Lee's surrender. 

SARASOTA, located on Sarasota Bay, is nationally famous for 
tarpon fishing and thousands of visitors come each year to enjoy 
this sport. Only a short distance away are several fine beaches 
where salt water surf bathing is afforded. 

Outstanding among the points of interest in this city are the 
winter headquarters of the Ringling Bros., Barnum and Baily Circus 
and the John and Mabel Ringling Museum of Art. During the 
winter, when the circus returns to Sarasota, visitors have the rare 
treat of seeing wild animals, clowns and trapeze artists under the 
informal setting of Florida sunshine and sub-tropical vegetation. 

The John and Mabel Ringling Museum of Art, containing the 
largest collection of Rubens in the world, is one of the show places 
of the city. So many famous paintings are found in this museum, 
until only the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York can boast 
of a finer collection. Besides paintings, the museum also has a 
number of excellent sculptures and vases. 


On the Gulf of Mexico is VENICE, home of the Florida Medical 
Center, a health resort specializing in sunbath treatments. Boating, 
fishing and bathing are popular. 

An important shipping point for fish, PUNTA GORDA fronts on 
Charlotte Harbor, second largest in State. Tarpon fishing is the 
favorite sport. 

FORT MYERS, on the Tamiami Trail, was founded in 1850 and 
named for a soldier who fought in the Seminole Indian War. 

Today, the city is noted for the many varieties of tropical palms 
that line its streets. Most beautiful are the double rows of Royal 
Palms, a variety that was once the exclusive property of Portuguese 

Fort Myers was the winter home of the great scientist, Thomas 
Edison, and here too was his winter laboratory. Henry Ford, Harvey 
Firestone and Elsworth Milton Statler also have homes in the city. 

East of Fort Myers lies the FLORIDA EVERGLADES, the huge 
sawgrass swamp which has been, since the Indian wars, the home of 
the Florida Seminole. These people often come to the city to pur- 
chase supplies with money they have earned fishing and trapping, 
and they may be seen on the streets in their bright native costumes. 



itte pitielturcis ctrtil rea hill ecgtons* 

'i i\ 

AKE CITY'S progress has been due to its strategic location. 
Nine principal highways converge here, affording more out- 
lets of highway transportation than any other place in Florida. 
It is estimated that more than a million people pass through this 
community annually. 

A fine old North Florida residence amid massive oak trees is the 
home of Fred P. Cone, Florida's governor. 

The U. S. Veterans Hospital is in Lake City also. 

LIVE OAK, the State's leading tobacco center, is near the 
Suwannee River, famed in the song, "The Old Folks at Home." 

North of MADISON are Cherry Lake Farms, one of the nation's 
model communities, begun in 1934 by the Resettlement Admin- 

MONTICELLO was once a mission town of the Spanish Trail. 
An intensive program of beautification during the past few years 
has made the little city one of the best landscaped communities 
in West Florida. 




TALLAHASSEE, Florida's capital, is built in the rolling red clay 
hill region. Here is the seat of the State Government and also 
the State College for Women. 

Beautiful lakes and rivers are in the vicinity, and twenty-two 
miles away is the Gulf of Mexico. Many drives around the capital 
city traverse heavily wooded hills. 

The old Episcopal cemetery has the graves of Achille Murat and 
his wife, a niece of George Washington. 

( \ Y ' ' V~v<0 
WAKULLA SPRINGS, 106 feet deep, are surrounded by a grove 

of massive cypress trees. In its transparent water many different 

kinds of fish and marine growth may be observed. A unique feature 

of the springs are the fossil remains seen in an underground 

cavern. Glass-bottom boats are provided for sight-seeing purposes. 

established as a timber reserve in 1936. Fishing is the chief recrea- 
tion in this locality. Many trails and roads traverse the forest/ 

PANAMA CITY, though only a fishing village a short time ago, 
has now more than 12,000 people, due largely to the paper mih 




there. It claims to be the closest American city to the Panama 
Canal and attracts tourists in all seasons. 

The vicinity of QUINCY supplies more than half of the world's 
total production of Fuller's earth. Quincy has also prospered as a 
tobacco market for the Sumatra varieties. 

CHATTAHOOCHEE, Florida's asylum for the insane, adjoins 
RIVER JUNCTION. The asylum houses over 4 # 000 patients. At 
this point the time changes from Eastern to Central Standard Time. 

TORREYA STATE PARK, named for the rare Torreya tree, is 
distinct for its steep slopes, ravines and historical Neal's Bluff. 
Six miles from BRISTOL. 

Near MARIANNA are numerous caverns worth seeing. The 
State Industrial Home for Boys is located here. 

DEFUNIAK SPRINGS is a popular resort built around an oval 
lake. f\ 

consists of 368,058 acres on Santa Rosa Sound and Choctawhatchee 
Bay. The reserve js noted for fishing and bathing. Tourists accom- 
modations and public camp grounds are available. A 4-H Camp 


I'at/c Si.rl //••/ iro 

*•"'*' -"7 , 



operates on the premises. The Florida pine is the predominating 

PENSACOLA, metropolis of Northwest Florida; is built upon 
high hills along Pensacola Bay. Flags of five nations have flown 
over the city which today is noted for its large naval air training 
school, navy yard and the forts in its environs. 

Over-hanging balconies and roofs, so frequently seen along the 
city's streets, and the old homes, unpainted and deteriorated by 
age, give Pensacola an Old World atmosphere. Several decades 
ago Pensacola was an important cotton port, but with the de- 
struction caused this crop by the boll weevil, Pensacola's shipping 
activities have waned in recent years. 

Old Christ Church, Plaza Ferninand VII, Farinas home, grave of 
Alexander McGillivary, and Jackson's old home are some of 
Pensacola's most interesting historical points. 

EDITOR'S NOTE: — Limited time and space did not warrant com- 
plete coverage of all towns, cities, and points of interest within 
the State. If your community has been omitted, we express our 
sincere regrets. 




iwiy -three 

No Postage Required No Signature Is Necessary Please Mail Promptly 

Your cooperation in furnishing the following information will be greatly 
appreciated by the State Road Department which builds Florida roads for you. 

Station No Date 

How many persons (including driver) in your car for this trip? 

What was the principal reason for this trip? 

Business Q Visit friends or relatives □ 

Health □ Recreation □ 

What fopns of recreation did you enjoy most? 

Principal points of interest to you 

While in Florida how did you spend most of your time: 

Touring the State □ Or Residing at : 

How many days did you stay in Florida on this trip?..— 

Did you stay most of the time at: 

Hotels □ With friends □ Rented apartments fj 

Your own home □ Tourist homes □ Trailer camps [ 

Roomed with private family fj Cabin Camps □ 
How much money did you spend in Florida on: 

Your own automobile (operation and maintenance) $ 

Living expenses $ 

Recreation f 

Total $ 

How many miles in Florida did you travel in your car on this trip? 

♦ ♦ ♦ 


By filling out and returning the questionnaire postcard, a fac- 
simile of which appears above, you will have done your part toward 
making possible the most accurate and all-inclusive study of high- 
way problems ever undertaken in the history of this country. 

These questionnaire cards will be distributed at several points 
along the State line and are available also at most of the Cham- 
bers of Commerce, as well as leading tourist centers. 

We not only solicit your full cooperation in supplying the neces- 
sary information but we will appreciate your early return of these 

We, of the Survey, wish you many pleasurable days in Florida 
and trust that you will come again to our State. 




744F15-" qqiPl 

Page Sixty-four B4/1B/B8 347B5 

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